Axioms of Higher Education
Резюме. Three are the main factors that guarantee the successful development of the institutions of higher education. They all may be considered as axioms extracted from the long standing universities as sustainable social structures. (1) “Education and research belong together” – this short sentence expresses the very university idea; (2) “Publish or perish; publish yet again perish” – the scientific research should be published but the marginal periodicals should be entirely avoided; (3) “Tradition and continuity” is an essential factor for a normal and fruitful university development.
Keywords: higher education, university, axioms of higher education, tradition and continuity
Dimitrov, D. & Toshev, B.V. (2001). Before it’s too late. 1. The reform of higher education. Strategies for policy in science and education, 9(2), 1-8 [In Bulgarian].
Garfield, E. (1972). Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science, 178, 472-479.
Hirsch, J.E. (2005). An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 102, 16569-16572.
Ilchev, I., Kolev, V., Kalinova, E., Baeva, I. & Todorova, T. (2008). University of Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski: The first 120 years. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski Univ. Press.
Toshev, B.V. (2001). Before it’s too late. 2. The liberal education in Bulgaria. Nauka, 11(4), 8-13 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2002). Before it’s too late. 4. McDonaldization of higher education. Strategies for policy in science and education, 10(3), 1-8 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2003). The scientific investigations and their importance for the higher education. Nauka, 13(4), 41-44 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2003). Political economy of higher education. Posoki, 5(4), 10-16 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2004). Publish or perish; publish yet again perish: rules for a successful scientific paper. Chemistry, 13, 163-172 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2004). Before it’s too late. 5. Distance education in Bulgaria and its alternative. Strategies for policy in science and education, 12(4), 18-25 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2004). Ranking of the world universities: lessons for the Bulgarian higher education. Nauka, 14(2), 18-23 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2005). Scientific activity, academic journals and science community. Nauka, 15(4), 42-46 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2006). Research legislation for the Bulgarian higher education. Nauka, 16(2), 25-30 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2007). Doctors of the University of Sofia (1930-1943): lessons from the history. BJSEP, 1, 43-50 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2007). Scientific activity in higher education: personal and institutional assessment. BJSEP, 1, 35-42 [In Bulgarian].
Toshev, B.V. (2008). Macrostability and microinstabilities in the scientific process. BJSEP, 2, 5-12 [In Bulgarian].
B.V. ToshevВлезте в системата, за да прочетете пълната статия
Education Goals and Their Importance in Achievement Test Construction
Резюме. The identification of educational goals and objectives provides a basis for developing of quality achievement tests. Educational standards should outline both what students are expected to know and what they are able to do at certain levels. The correct statements of knowledge, skills, and attitude expectations against which student performance is judged make easier the selection of the learning contents to be measured and increase the accuracy of assessment. Expert judgment is the primary method used to determine whether a test adequately and representatively measures what it is designed to measure. Given the importance of the test planning a case study concerning the measurement of students’ achievements toward meeting the standards and expected attainment outcomes is presented in this paper.
Keywords: chemistry education, educational standards, educational goals, achievement test, validity
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E. Boiadjieva, M. Kirova, A. Kuzmanov, A. Tafrova-Grigorova
Chemistry Learning Problems Conditioned by the Lack of Visual Thinking Skills
Резюме. Most of the difficulties arising while learning chemistry are connected with the lack of perception and incomprehension of the visual objects or phenomena, inability to decode and evaluate dimensional features, to exercise rotation actions in the minds, to create the right mental models. These problems arise from the lack of visual thinking skills. Different problems of chemistry education as the reasons of the lack of visual thinking skills are discussed in this article. A model concerning the lack of visual thinking skills has been constructed and its psychological features have been grounded.
Keywords: visual thinking, chemistry learning, model
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5. Bilbokaitė, R. Analysis of Visual Thinking Meaning in Science Education. Problems of Education in the 21st Century 4, 7-14 (2008).
6. Taber, K.S. Mediating Mental Models of Metals: Acknowledging the Priority of the Learner’s Prior Learning. Science Education 87, 732-758 (2003).
7. Chiu, M.-H., C.-C. Chou, C.-J. Liu. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium. J. Res. Sci. Teaching 39, 688-712 (2002).
8. Oversby, N. Models in Explanations of Physics: The Case of Acidity (pp. 227-253). In.: Gilbert, J.K., C. Boulter (Eds.) Developing Models in Science Education. Springer, 2000.
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12. Wu, H.-K., P. Shah. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Chemistry Learning. Science Education 88, 465-492 (2004).
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Design Technology for Development of Students’ Interest to Chemistry by Home Experimental Activity
Резюме. This paper deals with a proper instructional technology for development of students’ interest in chemistry by home experimental activity. The main idea is that to stimulate students’ interest to the subject, a complex of conditions prepossessing students in favor of learning should be realized. The design of technology with its components: conception, content, procedures, and support in their relationships, is described. This technology has been applied in school practice and its effectiveness has been proven.
Keywords: home chemistry activity, students’ interest, instructional technology
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7. Белова, М., Н. Бояджиева, Г. Димитрова, К. Сапунджиева. Теоретични основи на възпитанието. Веда Словена – ЖГ, София, 1997.
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9. Андреев, М. Процесът на обучение. Дидактика. Унив. изд. „Св. Климент Охридски”, София, 2000.
10. Gendjova, A. On the Selection of Home Chemical Experiments for Enhancing 7th-Grade Pupils’ Interest to Chemistry. Chemistry 15, 29-39 (2006) [In Bulgarian].
11. Близнаков, Г., Л. Боянова, М. Минчева, М. Петрова. Химия 7. клас. Просвета, София, 2003.
12. Генджова, А. Програма за домашна експериментална дейност „Връзка на химията с реалния свят” за повишаване интереса на учениците. Годишник Шуменски университет 17 (В5), 52-59 (2007).
13. Генджова, А., Л. Боянова. За домашния химичен експеримент. Химия 14, 280-288 (2005).
14. Генджова, А., Л. Боянова. Организация на домашни химични опити за повишаване на интереса на учениците в седми клас. Химия 14, 289-297 (2005).
15. Gendjova, A. A Study of Quality of Home Chemistry Activity Tools. Chemistry 17, 98-108 (2008) [In Bulgarian].
16. Генджова, А. Повишаване на интереса на учениците към химията чрез домашни химични опити. Дисертация за образователната и научна степен „доктор”, Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски”, София, 2007.
17. Gendjova, A. Enhancing Students’ Interest in Chemistry by Home Chemistry Experiments. J. Baltic Science Education 6(3), 5-15 (2007).
A. Gendjova, L. Boyanova
Newspaper Articles Impact on a First Chemistry Class in Primary School
Резюме. A large number of natural sciences concepts make up the basis of articles in daily papers. To follow and understand those articles, one should apply general, special and individual concepts of geography, biology, physics and chemistry. This is the reason why the present paper examines the possibility of applying daily papers as a teaching aid in initial chemistry education i.e. on a first chemistry class in the 7th grade of primary school (age 13). The analysis of newspaper articles provided a first-hand evidence for pupils how important is learning of school subjects that natural sciences are studied through and at the same time provisions were made for understanding the subject of chemistry study as a natural science. In addition, by the analysis of the results achieved an insight was gained into the application of concepts acquired through school subjects taught by the 7th grade (nature study, geography, biology, physics). Investigations were carried out in two primary schools and comprised 108 pupils.
Keywords: teaching aids-daily paper, introduction to chemistry learning
1. Ivić, I.D, A.Z. Pešikan, S.V. Janković-Antić. Activno učenje 2 – priručnik za primenu metoda aktivnog učenja-nastava. Institut za psihologiju, Beograd, 2001 [In Serbian].
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7. Louters, L.L., R.D. Huisman. Promoting Chemistry at the Elementary Level: A Low-Maintenance Program of Chemical Demonstrations. J. Chem. Educ. 76, 196-197 (1999).
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Z. Savic, G. Jovic, J.N. Korolija, L.M. Mandic
Radium Research in Early 20th Century (Rentetzi, 2007)
Резюме. In 2007 Columbia University Press published the book by Dr. Maria Rentetzi “Trafficking Materials and Gendered Experimental Practices: Radium Research in Early 20th Century Vienna”. The book is a careful study on the work of a large number of scientists for understanding of the new phenomena which receive after Marie & Pierre Curie the name “radioactivity”. These are scientists from the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century. The study of Dr. Maria Rentetzi is concentrated on the organization and development of the Radium Institute in Vienna as well as on its role in the investigation of radium. This is presented on the background of the social and political changes in Europe which exert significant influence on the science about radioactivity. The book is a study in the field of history of science which has been written on the basis of many years work and examination of a large number of literary sources and private correspondences. That is a book which is written about the people working in the first 20 – 30 years of the 20th century in the Radium Institute of Vienna – men and women whose life is a part of exciting radium story combining together scientific fields developed before independently – physics, chemistry, technology, biology, and medicine. The establishment of the Radium Institute initiates the beginning of the interdisciplinary research which today is a common feature of the modern scientific approach. The author tracks the personal fate of a number of scientists participating in the investigation of radium and describes the details of those studies. All this is made on the way grip the reader and presenting the historical development of the science of radioactivity, of the city Vienna as a focus of political life reflecting the events in Europe and in the world. The material in the book is presented in 7 chapters, where the text includes 280 pages with huge number of citations – more than of 500 titles. At the same time every chapter is accompanied with long list of citations and notes of the author giving some additional explanations or expanding the author’s point of views. The book is illustrated with a huge number of photos, diagrams and tables, the more of them are very rare. The author investigates the social environment in Europe and especially in Austria before and after the First World War as well as the influence of social changes on the radium research caused by the war. Dr. Rentetzi outlines the role of a large number of phenomenal talented women taking part in the investigation of radioactivity. To the name of Marie Curie and later to her daughter Irene Joliot-Curie (in Paris) are the names of Lise Meitner, Stefani Horovits, Marieta Blau, Elisaveta Kara-Michailova, Elisabet Rona, Bertha Karlik, etc. The names of all these women are among the names of the scientists realized important steps to the knowledge about the new, unknown phenomena which, at the end of the Second World War, bring to such achievement in the field of nuclear research that the life on the Earth was totally changed. In this notice about the very interesting book by Dr. Maria Rentezi I allow me to retell, usually fragmentary and often not tied together, some key facts. I chose curious or unknown facts for the Bulgarian readers. I do it deliberately because I think that with these facts the reader can get some idea about the huge brain work put by the author for gathering the information presented in the book. Therefore, I allow me to recommend this valuable and fascinating book to all who would have the possibility to read it.
Keywords: radium research, 20th century, Vienna, Radium Institute
I. KuleffВлезте в системата, за да прочетете пълната статия
Technogenic Radionuclides in the Environment (Popov & Kuleff, 2008)
Резюме. The monography of Popov and Kuleff is devoted to the origin of the technogenic radionuclides in the environment, methods for sampling, the samples primary treatment, methods for nuclides isolation and determination. Special attention is paid on quality assurance of the radioanalytical work. Brief review of the both basic principles of the radioactivity measurements and the principles of the statistic treatment of the result is done. Complete and detailed information on the technogenic radionuclides in environment of Bulgaria, its dynamic in large period of time and geographical distribution is given. The authors are actively working in the field of the environmental radioactivity. Prof. Dr. I. Kuleff, DSc, is a university lecturer, prominent specialist in radioanalytical chemistry. Dr. L. Popov, a former Ph.D. student of Prof. Kuleff, is working as head of the Radiochemical Laboratory at the Department of Radioecological Monitoring of the Kozloduj Nuclear Power Plant. The book is of interest for the specialists in radioanalytical chemistry, it may be used as a textbook for students in nuclear chemistry, and also it will be a valuable manual for a wide range of readers dealing with radioecology.
Keywords: technogenic radionuclides, radioanalytical chemistry, radioecology
D. TodorovskyВлезте в системата, за да прочетете пълната статия