Education: Theory & Practice
My Experience in Reviewing of Theses and Other Papers in the Field of Science Education
Резюме. According to the Bulgarian Act of Scientific Degrees and Scientific Ranks (1972) two referees evaluate the dissertations and other academic papers of the candidates for the scientific degree ‘doctor’ (PhD); these referees are three when the candidate makes claim to the scientific degree ‘doctor of science’ (DSc). When one applies for the scientific rank ‘docent’ (Associate Professor) the referees are two again, but when the application is for the highest scientific rank ‘professor’ (Professor), the evaluation of the candidate’s scientific achievements is made by three reviewers. The author of the present article shares his experience in the participation in these evaluation procedures. Mainly the area of science education is under his attention.
Keywords: scientific degrees and ranks, evaluation, referees and reviews, scientific criteria
D. LazarovВлезте в системата, за да прочетете пълната статия
Secondary Analogy between Chemical Elements
Резюме. Primary intra group analogy is the base of periodic teaching and is explicitly indicated in most of the periodic tables. The same maximum number of valence electrons having similar valence electron configuration of elements connects them with primary analogy. In addition to this, there occurs secondary inter group analogy between chemical elements in the periodic table. This analogy combines elements of groups-A, B and C with same number of valence electrons in a form of family. In general, these families exhibit similarities only in their maximum oxidation states. This article covers secondary analogy of the elements.
Keywords: chemical elements, periodic table, primary analogy, secondary analogy
1. Bouma, J. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements. J. Chem. Educ. 66, 741-744 (1989).
2. Mazurs, E.G. Graphic Representations of the Periodic Table During One Hundred Years. Univ. Alabama Press, 1974.
3. Jensen, W.B. Classification, Symmetry and the Periodic Table. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 12, 487-510 (1986).
4. Корольков, Д.В. Принцип периодичности в химии непереходных элементов. СПб, 1992 (added by the referee).
5. Laing, M. The Periodic Table – A New Arrangement. J. Chem. Educ. 66, 746 (1989).
6. Rich, R.L. Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others? J. Chem. Educ. 82, 1761-1763 (2005).
7. Jensen, W.B. The Place of Zink, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table. J. Chem. Educ. 80, 952-961 (2003).
Chemical Experiments in the Chemistry and Environment Electronic Textbooks for 9 and 10 Compulsory Grades
Резюме. The selection of chemical experiments in the Chemistry and Environment electronic textbooks for compulsory 9th and 10th grades of the Bulgarian secondary school is considered in the present paper. The experiments have been chosen to meet the requirements of the curricula. The didactic requirements for the chemical experiments are carefully taken into account. The special rules of preparation of electronic materials are fulfilled. The selected experiments have been broadcasted as short videos and have been included in the respective lessons. Thus experiments which are hard to perform in the school laboratory because of the luck of enough time have been successfully demonstrated. Such video tools facilitate teachers in their school activity. They could be used by the students in their self-learning.
Keywords: chemical experiment, electronic textbook, video
1. Учебни програми IV част за задължителна и профилирана подготовка IX, X, XI и XII клас. Културнообразователна област: природни науки и екология. Главна редакция на педагогическите издания, София, 2003.
2. Ангелова, В., З. Малчева, Л. Генкова. Методика на обучението по химия. Унив. изд. „Св. Климент Охридски”, София, 1994.
3. Киркова, Е., Е. Радков, Г. Георгиев, И. Атанасона. Демонстрации по неорганична химия. Унив. изд. „Св. Климент Охридски”, София, 1994.
4. Митков, И., В. Никифоров, С. Чорбаджиев. Ръководство за химични демонстрации – органична химия. Наука и езкуство, София, 1990.
5. Петрушевски, В.М., М. Наjдоски. Екпериментот во наставата по химиjа – книга прва. МАГОР, Скорje, 2000.
6. Наjдоски, М., В.М. Петрушевски. Екпериментот во наставата по химиjа – книга втора. МАГОР, Скорje, 2000.
7. Hartsell, T., S.C.-Y. Yuen. Video Steaming in Online Learning. AACE J. 14, 31-43 (2006).
8. Lee, W.W., D.L. Owens. Multimedia-based Instructional Design: Computer-based Training, Web-based Training, Distance Broadcast Training. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2000.
9. Николова, И. Проектиране и реализация на www-базирано обучение: методология и средства. Дисертация за образователната и научна степен „доктор”, Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски”, София, 2000.
Teaching Chemical Experiment
An Alternative Synthesis of Calcium Dobesilate, A Simple Venous Insufficiency Drug, Suitable for Use in Medical or Organic Chemistry Practical Courses
Резюме. Calcium dobesilate, calcium 2,5-dihydroxybenzensulfonate, a commonly used venous insufficiency and diabetic retinopathy drug, is usually synthetised according to original patent of Esteve-Subirana  by a “redox substitution” of 1,4-benzoquinone with calcium hydrogensulfite. This paper describes an alternative synthesis of this drug by sulfonation of hydroquinone with following neutralization of 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonic acid with calcium carbonate. This preparative way is suitable also for use in chemical or pharmaceutical education, e.g. in practical exercises in Medicinal chemistry or in Organic chemistry.
Keywords: calcium dobesilate, synthesis, hydroquinone, pharmaceutical education
1. Sarabia, M., S. Leon, J. Vivas, M. Lizarzabal, R. Rangel, J. Fernandez, G. Romero, M. Anez, M. D’Albenzio, Z. Latuff, A. Serrano, M. Gonzalez. Calcium Dobesilate versus Purified Flavonoid Fraction of Diosmin in the Treatment of Hemorrhoidal Crisis: A Randomized, Controlled Study with an Initial Double-blind, Double-dummy Period. Curr. Ther. Res. 62, 524-529 (2001).
2. Tejerina, T., E. Ruiz. Calcium Dobesilate: Pharmacology and Future Approaches. Gen. Pharmacol. 31, 357-360 (1998).
3. Garay, R.P., P. Hannaert, C. Chiavaroli. Calcium Dobesilate in the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy. Treatments & Endocrinology 4, 221-232 (2005).
4. Český lékopis 2005. Grada Publishing, Praha, 2005, p. 2054.
5. Seyda, A. Ueber Sulfonsäuren des Hydrochinons. Chem. Ber. 16, 687-694 (1883).
6. Esteve-Subirana, A. Therapeutically Active Derivatives of p-Dihydroxybenzene. US Patent 3509207, 28 Apr 1970.
7. Ley, H., G. Soltau. Verfahren zur Hersellung von Calciumbisulfitlauge. DE Patent 713015, 2 Oct 1941.
O. Farsa, M. Sablatura
From the Research Laboratories
Selective Transport of Silver(I) Ion across a Polymer Membrane Containing 18S6 Ionophor
Резюме. The selective polymer membrane transport of Ag(I) ion from an aqueous solution containing seven metal cations, Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ag(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), was studied .The source phase was 0.01M to each of the above-mentioned cations at pH 5.0 (CH3COOH/CH3COONa). The receiving phase was buffered at pH 3.0 (HCOOH/HCOONa). The selective silver(I) ion transport occurred (J = 4.14 x 10-6 mol/h at 25oC) from source phase across the polymer membrane containing 18S6 as the ionophore into the receiving phase. The highly transport selectivity was observed for Ag(I) ion.
Keywords: membrane, cation, transport, pH, selectivity
1. Schröder, M. Macrocyclic Complexes of the Platinum Metals. Pure Appl. Chem. 60, 517-524 (1988).
2. Bell, M.N., A.J. Blake, R.O. Gould, A.J. Holder, T.I. Hyde, A.J. Lavery, G. Reid, M. Schröder. Transition Metal Complexes of Homoleptic Polythia Crowns. J. Inclusion Phenomena & Macrocyclic Chem. 5, 169-172 (1987).
3. Blake, A.J., R.O. Gould, A.J. Holder, T.I. Hyde, M. Schröder. Silver Thioether Chemistry: Synthesis, X-Ray Crystal Structure and Redox Properties of [Ag(aneS6)]+(aneS6=1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexathiacyclooctadecane). Polyhedron 8, 513-518 (1989).
4. Blake, A.J., R.O. Gould, M.A. Halcrow, A.J. Holder, T.I. Hyde, M. Schröder. Nickel Thioether Chemistry: A Re-axamination of the Electrochemistry of [Ni(aneS3)2]2+. The Single-crystal X-Ray Structure of a Nickel(III) Thioether Complex, [NiIII(aneS3)2][H5O2]3[CIO4]6aneS3=1,4,7-Trithiacyclononane. JCS Dalton Trans. 3427-3431 (1992).
5. Black, D., A.J. Blake, R.L. Finn, L.F. Lindoy, A. Nezhadeli, G. Rounaghi, P.A. Tasker, M. Schröder. Compartmental Schiff-base Ligands as Selective Double-loaded Extractants for Copper(II). Chem. Commun. 340-341 (2002).
6. Chartres, J.D., A.M. Groth, L.F. Lindoy, G.V. Meehan. Metal Ion Recognotion. Selective Interaction of Silver(I) with Tri-linked N2S2-donor Macrocycles and Their Single-ring Analogues. JCS Dalton Trans. 371-376 (2002).
7. Atkinson, I.M., J.D. Chartres, G.W. Everett, X.-K. Ji, L.F. Lindoy, O.A. Mathews, G.V. Neehan, B.W. Skelton, G. Wei, A.H. White. Macrocyclic Ligand Design. Interaction of Selected Transition and Post-transition Metal Ions with a New N2O2-donor Macrocycle Incorporating a Pyridylmethyl Pendant Arm. JCS Dalton Trans. 1191-1198 (2000).
8. Fainerman-Melnikova, M., A. Nezhadeli, G. Rounaghi, J.C. McMutrie, J. Kim, K. Gloe, M. Langer, S.S. Lee, L.F. Lindoy, T. Nishimura, K.-M. Park, J. Seo. Metal Ion Reconnition via Selective Detuning. The Interaction of Selected Transition and Post-transition Metal Ions with a Mono-N-benzylated O2N3-donor Macrocycle and Its Xylyl-bridged Ring Analogue. JCS Dalton Trans. 122-128 (2004).
9. Kim, J., A.J. Leong, L.F. Lindoy, J. Kim, J. Nachbaur, A. Nezhadali, G. Rounaghi, G. Wei. Metal-Ion Recognition. Competitive Bulk Membrane Transport of Transition and Post Transition Metal Ions Using Oxygen-Nitrogen Donor Macrocycles as Ionophores. JCS Dalton Trans. 3453-3459 (2000).
10. Kumar, S., V. Bhalla, H. Singh. Synthetic Ionophores Part 19: Synthesis and Ionophore Character of 2-Aminothiophenol Based Silver Selective Acyclic and Cyclic Receptors. Tetrahedron 54, 5575-5586 (1998).
11. Shamsipur, M., M.H. Mashhasizadeh. Highly Efficient and Selective Membrane Transport of Silver(I) Using Hexathia-18-crown-6 as a Specific Ion Carrier. Sep. Purif. Technol. 20, 147-153 (2000).
12. Shamsipur, M., M.H. Mashhasizadeh, G. Azimi. Highly Selective and Efficient Transport of Mercury(II) Ions across a Bulk Liquid Membrane Containing Tetrathia-12-crown-4 as a Specific Ion Carrier. Sep. Purif. Technol. 27, 155-161 (2002).
13. Tsukube, H., K. Tagaki, T. Higashiyama, T. Iwachido, N. Nayama. “Armed Thia-crown Ether”: A Specific Carrier for Soft Metal Cation. Tetrahedron Lett. 26, 881-882 (1985).
14. Nezhadali, A. Selective Transport of Copper(II) Ion across a Polymer Membrane Incorporating a Difunctional Schiff-base Ionophore. J. Inclusion Phenomena & Macrocyclic Chem. 54, 307-308 (2006).
15. Danesi, P.R. Separation of Metal Species by Supported Liquid Membranes. Sep. Sci. Technol. 19, 857-894 (1984).
16. Siguara, M. Coupled-ion Transport through a Solvent Polymeric Membrane. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 81, 385-389 (1981).
17. Fainerman-Melnikova, M., L.F. Lindoy, S.-Y. Liou, J.C. McMutrie, N.P. Green, A. Nezhadali, G. Rounaghi, W.N. Setzer. Metal-Ion Recognition-Selective Bulk Membrane Transport of Silver(I) Using Thoether Donor Macrocycles as Ionophores, and X-Ray Structure of the Silver Complex of an S4-Donor Ring. Australian J. Chem. 57, 161-166 (2004).
18. Izatt, R.M., R.L. Bruening, M.L. Bruening, G.C. LindH, J.J. Christensen. Modeling Diffusion-Limited, Neutral-Macrocycle-Mediated Cation Transport in Supported Liquid Membranes. Anal. Chem. 61, 1140-1148 (1989).
19. Blake, A.J., A. Taylor, M. Schröder. Interconversion of AuI/II/III Centres in Thioether Macrocyclic Complexes: The Synthesis, Structure and Redox Properties of [Au(aneS6)]PF6 and [Au(aneS5)2][B(C6H5)4]2. Chem. Commun. 1097-1098 (1993).
20. Grant, G.J., K.E. Rogers, W.N. Setzer, D.G. VanDerveer. Crown Thoether Complexes of Trivalent Transition Metal Ions. The Crystal Structure of [Cr(18S6)Cl3]. Inorg. Chim. Acta 234, 35-45 (1995).
New Information Media
Electronic Course on the Methods and Tools of the Teaching Chemical Experiment
Резюме. The aim of this paper is to launch an electronic course (e-course) on the methods and tools of the teaching chemical experiment. This course is intended for the chemistry students of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski”. The purpose of that course, both traditional and electronic, is to develop the ability of the prospective teachers to carry out chemical experiments in their future school practice. Analyzing the special features of the traditional course, the need for implementation of computer-aided teaching is argued. The e-course is split in two sections – informational and practical. The informational part consists of theory, experiments and methods. Assignments and proper means of electronic communication between students and the teacher are presented in the practical part. This e-course is tested in practice.
Keywords: e-learning, e-course, computer-assisted teaching, chemical experiment
1. Toshev, B.V. The Successful Teacher: Historical Review with Some Practical Recommendations. Chemistry 16, 473-481 (2007) [In Bulgarian].
2. Калпачка, Х., Б. Радоев. Мултимедиен модул лекции за компютърно базирано обучение по физикохимия на повърхностите и дисперсните системи. Химия 14, 358-361 (2005).
3. Tafrova-Grigorova, A., K. Yankulova, I. Baranovska. Miltimedia Modules: Chemical Bonds. Chemistry 16, 92-98 (2007).
4. Косекова, Г.П. Иновационни образователни технологии в медицинското образование. Проектиране на Wеb-базирано обучение по биохимия. Централна медицинска библиотека, София, 2000.
5. Косекова, Г.П. Web-базирано обучение по биохимия. От ентусиазма до виртуалния медицински университет. Централна медицинска библиотека, София, 2000.
6. Калпачка, Х., Б. Радоев, Д. Митев. Web-базирана сиистема за тестови изпитвания по „Физикохимия на повърхностите и дисперсните системи”. Химия 14, 395-402 (2005).
7. Ally, M. Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning. In.: Anderson, T., F. Elloumi (Eds.). Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University, Athabasca, 2004.
8. Николова, И.Х. Проектиране и реализация на www-базирано обучение: методология и средства. Дисертация за образователната и научна степен „доктор”, Софийски университет, София, 2000.
9. Collis, B., J. Moonen. Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations. Routledge, London, 2001.
10. Dunkin, M.J. (Ed.). The International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education. Pergamon, Oxford, 1987, pp. 313-326.
11. Anderson, T., F. Elloumi (Eds.). Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University, Athanasca, 2004.
12. Малчева, З., Л. Генкова, В. Найденова. Методика и техника на учебния химичен експеримент. Унив. издателство „Неофит Рилски”, Благоевград, 2000.
T. Monova, L. Boyanova, S. Tsakovski
A Book Written with Love and Respect (E. Golovinsky, 2008)
Резюме. In his book the author tells memories about his childhood, school and student years and describes his work as a researcher, university lecturer and promoter of science. He shares impressions from his teachers at school and university, tells about his relations with friends, classmates, fellow students and colleagues. E. Golovinsky shares his experience as a tutor of younger scientists and scientific teams. He remembers his own tutors who left their personal contribution in our national science and education. In the book the reader will find exciting episodes concerning author’s meetings with interesting persons – scientists, men of art and culture. E. Golovinsky tells about important events fro the history of our country and points out his contacts with the science from other countries – Germany, Russia, France and Austria. He also describes some of his participations in international scientific meetings. The author shares his views about the education, the organization and role of the scientific investigations as well as about some cultural processes in our country and abroad.
D. LazarovВлезте в системата, за да прочетете пълната статия
Educational System in Japan (A. Ivanova, 2008)
Резюме. The contents of the book comprises of 243 pages, structured in: preface, four chapters, 17 appendixes, glossary and bibliography, with 126 quoted titles. In structural and idea-conveying aspect, the book meets the requirements of a book of a monographic character. As a general characteristic of this monograph I would like to mention some of its obvious merits: logically ordered and systematically presented material; exceptionally clear and exact thought; thorough a comprehend give research of each subtitle which suggests hard and diligent work with many primary sources. The book is read at one go. It is difficult to say which part dominates the others, as each chapter is fully detailed and covers the topic given in the title. As a biologist, the author supports the factual material, the analysis presented and the conclusions drawn through a number of concrete examples of curriculums, text books and different kinds of systems of testing of knowledge in the field of biology. The monograph becomes completed with its 17 appendixes and the glossary of the Japanese terms, as replacing of the most of these terms with Bulgarian translations would be inappropriate or even incorrect. In this respect I would like to put an emphasis on the fact that the author is really well-oriented in the Japanese history and in the Japanese terminology with its meanings.