The Reform of Education Is a Scientific Problem
Резюме. Education reform is not only political will. This is a research problem which includes all the stages of a serious research process: it must take into account the profound changes in the demographic, ethnic, moral and social structure of the contemporary Bulgarian society; it should investigate the reasons for the formal attitudes of parents concerning the education of their children; it should analyze the loss of creative motivation among the participants in the educational process as a reflection of today’s social practice. Education reform need not be fast. Reforms in all spheres of human activity must go in tandem.
Keywords: educational reforms, educational policy, secondary education
2011 – International Year of Chemistry
History of the Union of Bulgarian Chemists. I. Bulgarian Chemical Society and the Journal „Chemistry and Industry“ – Selected Documents
Резюме. In 2011 we celebrate 110 years since founding of the Bulgarian Chemical Society, reorganized in 1924 in the Union of the Bulgarian Chemists. In a series of articles, compiled be Eng. Nayden Naydenov, secretary of the Union of Chemists in Bulgaria, a collection of authentic documents sketching the history of the organized movement of the Bulgarian chemists, is presented. Most of these papers were published in the Bulgarian journal “Chemistry & Industry”. In those documents are the names of a whole host of Bulgarian chemists, whose professional activity is of an importance for the chemical industry and education. Most of these people are now undeservedly forgotten, and just in the International Year of Chemistry – 2011, clearing their names of the dust of oblivion is desirable and relevant.
Keywords: Bulgarian Chemical Society, Chemistry & Industry, history
Education: Theory & Practice
Home, Family, School: On the Pupils’ Aloofness from Their School
Резюме. Most often students are not particularly connected emotionally to their schools. Such alienation from school is not in interest of the educational process. The article analyzes the main causes of this negative factor – the presence of chimerical community groups, resulting in strong and prolonged migration processes in society, and the collapse of the Bulgarian family, which is largely due to the same reason. Familiarize students with the history of their schools with their former prominent teachers and pupils may have a positive effect on changing attitudes of students at their schools. This idea is verified in the town of Dobrich, where the history of educational work is particularly intriguing because for long periods of time the organization and realization of the learning process in school followed the rules of two different countries – Kingdom of Bulgaria and Kingdom of Romania.
Keywords: pupils’ aloofness, chimerical social groups, family disintegration, history of school, education in Bulgaria, education in Romania
Z. Peteva, V. Filipova, B.V. Toshev
Science Learning Environment in the Bulgarian School: Students’ Beliefs
Резюме. This paper presents a study on the secondary students’ perceptions of science classroom. There is no a similar large-scale research on the learning environment in Bulgarian schools. A Bulgarian version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) was administered to 1364 students, grade 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, from 28 schools in 9 Bulgarian regions. This instrument has been proved to be able to provide reliable information about students’ perceptions and their expectations of а constructivist science classroom environment. Data collected were differentiated by grades (age), urban area, kind of secondary school, and gender to seek patterns and differences in students’ beliefs. No differences in students’ perceptions of their actual learning environment in any of these categories were detected. Neither difference in students’ expectations of their preferred classroom climate was found. Quite the contrary, an evident difference between actual and preferred environment for all categories exists. Students’ views of the actual classroom vary from traditional teacher-centered to predominantly constructivist student-centered environment, while their preferences definitely incline to an entirely constructivist classroom.
Keywords: science education, constructivist approach, Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), learning environment
E. Boiadjieva, M. Kirova, A. Tafrova-Grigorova, J.E. Hollenbeck
Using Chemical Experiments in the Problem-Based Approach When Teaching/Learning of the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation
Резюме. The basic concepts of the theory of electrolytic dissociation are systemized and discussed. The framework of the concept-based approach to teaching/learning of the theory of electrolytic dissociation is established. Appropriate chemical experiments that would be used to reveal the general and partial teaching problems of the theory of electrolytic dissociation are listed and commented.
Keywords: educational chemical experiment, discussing problems approach in the educational process
E. Gergova, A. Angelacheva
A Modified Form of the Material Balance Method Applied to Redox Equations Depending on Two Degrees of Freedom
Резюме. A modified material balance technique of balancing redox equations depending on two degrees of freedom (two independent parameters) with infinite sets of non multiple coefficients was proposed. Such an approach permits to decrease the number of the linear algebraic equations and gives a possibility to solve the stoichiometric problems faster and easier.
Keywords: redox equations, material balance method, infinite sets of non-multiple stoichiometric coefficients
S. Petkova, M. Atanassova, I. Dukov
Chemistry & History of Chemistry: An Online Supplement
Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Ligand Coper(II) Complexes of Histidine and Hippuric Acid
Резюме. Mixed ligand copper(II) complexes, [Cu2(C6H8N3O2)2 –μ(C6H5CONHCH2COO)(H2O)2].2H2O and [Cu2(C6H8N3O2)2 – μ-(C6H5CONHCH2COO)(H2O)2] formed with histidine and hippuric acid have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analysis, magneto chemical measurements and spectral (IR and electronic) studies. Histidine in these complexes acts as a tridentate ligand, coordinating through the two nitrogen atoms of imidazole ring and the amino group and carboxylate oxygen whereas hippuric acid shows a bidentate nature and the coordination occurs through the carboxylate oxygen and the nitrogen of the amido group. Water molecules satisfy the remaining coordination positions. The complexes have been suggested to show a bi nuclear penta coordinated (possibly square pyramidal) structure.
Keywords: Cu(II) complexes, histidine, hippuric acid, synthesis,